Diversity 2de PDF

Locally varied food production systems are under threat, including local knowledge and the culture and skills of women and men farmers. With the disappearance of harvested species, varieties and breeds, a wide range of unharvested species diversity 2de PDF disappear.

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Since the 1900s, some 75 percent of plant genetic diversity has been lost as farmers worldwide have left their multiple local varieties and landraces for genetically uniform, high-yielding varieties. 12 plants and five animal species. Of the 4 percent of the 250 000 to 300 000 known edible plant species, only 150 to 200 are used by humans. Only three – rice, maize and wheat – contribute nearly 60 percent of calories and proteins obtained by humans from plants. 17 main fishing grounds are now being fished at or above their sustainable limits, with many fish populations effectively becoming extinct. Fallow fields and wildlands can support large numbers of species useful to farmers.

In addition to supplying calories and protein, wild foods supply vitamins and other essential micro-nutrients. However, in some areas, pressure on the land is so great that wild food supplies have been exhausted. Over time, people have indirectly shaped many plants. There are many reasons for this decline in agrobiodiversity. Throughout the twentieth century the decline has accelerated, along with increased demands from a growing population and greater competition for natural resources. The rapid expansion of industrial and Green Revolution agriculture.